Mining Land Struggle in India

Different companies involved in mining and minerals mined

Jharkhand: Iron Ore (Tisco, Iisco, Sail, M L Bharada, Ratanlal, Runghta, Khairwal), Manganese (Kailash Ojha), Kynite (Tisco), Copper (Hindustan Copper Ltd.), Uranium (UCIL), China Clay (Ratanlal), Gold (Kundru Khocha -Closed), Coal (CCL, ECL, BCCL, Tisco), Limestone (Nevatia, J.D. Bharada, Runghata, ACC), Mica (Ratan Mica, ICR, CMR, MMTC), Granite (Local Traders), Bauxite (Hindalco)

Orissa: Keonjhar – Limestone (Orissa Mining Companies), Manganese (TISCO), Iron Ore (IDC), Gold (Jindal); Sundergarh – Iron (OCL), Manganese (TISCO), Dolomite (JINDAL), Limestone (BIRLA), Coal (MCL, Hindustan Zinc); Jharsuguda – Coal (MCL), Stone (Building materials), Dolomite; Ganjam – Mineral Sands (Indian Rare Earths Ltd); Bargarh – Bauxite (Proposed), Uranium; Bolangir – Graphite (Private Companies), Bauxite; Rayagada – Bauxite (NALCO); Angul – Coal (MCL); Jajpur – Chromite (OMC, IDC, TISCO, Mishrilal Jain); Sambalpur – Uranium; Phulbani – Graphite

Maharashtra: North – Stone Quarrying, Brick Kilns, Sand mining by small private operators; South/Central – Bauxite, Iron Ore, Manganese; Vidharbha – Coal (Yavatmal, Chandrapur and Nagpur), Iron ore (Nagpur, Bhandara and Gadchiroli), Limestone, Manganese, Dolomite and Sand

Goa: Iron Ore, Manganese

Karnataka: Manganese Iron Ore

Rajasthan: West – Coal, Multani Soil, Granite, Limestone, Sandstone, Gypsum; South – Soapstone, Marble, Limestone, Phosphate, Building Asbestos material; Other Area – Marble, Lignite, Copper, Red Stone, Redsand

Gujarat: North (Ambaji) – Marble, Felspar; Central (Saurashtra) – Limestone, Building Materials Stones, Lignite, Gypsum; South – Lignite, Felspar

Chattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh: Manganese, Copper and Limestone – Balaghat, (M.P), Katani, Satana; Coal – Shahdol, Raigarh, Sarguja, Bilaspur (Chattisgarh), Chindwara, Charasiya (M.P); Iron Ore – Dalli Rajhara, Bailadilla, Bilaspur (Chattisgarh); Dolomite – Sarguja, Dallhi Rajhara, Bailladilla; Alexandraite (Diamond) – Gariaband Deobhog (Chattisgarh), Panna, Mazgawa, Ramarmeria (M.P); Black Stone – Rajim, Dhamtari, Mahasamund; Bauxite – Balaghat (M.P), Kanker District, Mainpat mine (Chattisgarh); Marble – Bhedaghat (M.P); Green colour marble – Betul dist (M.P); Uranium – Rajnandgaon and Raigarh

Andhra Pradesh: Granite – Tekkali Division (Srikakulam District) by Chennai/ Hyderabad based companies. Rayalaseema region; Stone quarry – on the foot hills of the Eastern Ghats by small scale unorganised sector operators; Mineral Sand: Proposal to mine 150 km beach stretch in North Coastal Andhra Pradesh; Bauxite: Proposed in Visakhapatnam and East Godavari; Limestone – In Visakhapatnam, East Godavari and Vizianagaram proposed, Araku is taking place. In Cuddapah, Guntur, Nalgonda, Khammam districts there are large cement factories. Large Cement factories are the owners of the mines in most cases; Calcite – Proposed in Nimmalapadu (Borra area), Visakhapatnam; Mica – Nellore, Chittoor, Visakhapatnam districts of Andhra Pradesh have a lot of abandoned mines. The mines are mostly small scale operated mostly by local politicians; Manganese – Vizianagaram by large Calcutta based company; White quartz – Nellore district, Small scale owned by local politicians. A lot of abandoned mines also; Gem Stones – small scale illegal rat hole mining in East Godavari, Visakhapatnam and Vizianagaram; Sand quarry – river beds in Nellore; Coal – Singareni collieries, Palavancha (Khammam), Ramagundem (Karimnagar); Gold: Proposed in Anantapur and Chittoor

Tamil Nadu: Granite – Salem and Coimbatore hills by politically powerful local individuals or by politicians themselves; Road Gravel (Kankara)/Stone quarry – Chennai, Kanchipuram, Tirunevelli and Tuticorin district; Mineral Sand – Tuticorin district; Bauxite- Kolinalar hills (Salem); Limestone – In Kanchipuram, Tirunelvelli, Salem, Viudhunagar districts of Tamilnadu there are a lot of cement factories, in which Mr. Murasoli Maran has large stakes; Manganese – Tuticorn district by a government company; Sand Quarry – In all river beds and coastal belt part of Chennai, Kanchipuram, Karur, Ramnad, Madurai, Teni, Trichy, Trunelvelli and Tuticorin; Coal – Neyveli Lignite;


Chattisgarh – Bhilai steel Plant, NTPC Korba, SECL (COAL), NMDC Bailladila, Jindal Strips Limited, Monnet Steel, L&T, Century, Lafarge, Raymonds, Ambuja, Jamul, Grasim, JK Mehra, Rava Cement factories; Rajasthan – RSMM (Rajasthan State Mineral Development), FCI (Fertiliser Corporation Of India), Hindustan Zinc Ltd., R.K. Marble, Binani Group, J.K. Group, Birla, Khetan Marble, Local Traders and Contractors; Gujarat – Gujarat Mineral Development Corporation, Sanghi Group, Adani, Reliance Petrochemicals, ACC, Hindustan Lever, Ajmera Cement, Birla, GHCL, CCGL, Ambuja Cement, Narmada Cement, Ship building yard (Alang), Excel industries (Bhavnagar), Mideast, Hindustan Marble, Tirupati Industry, Ambuja Marble, Balaji, ONGC; Maharashtra – INDAL, Dempos (Prospecting in Zolambe); Goa – Dempos; Timblos, Fomentos; Chowgules, Salgaoncar’s; Karnataka – Kudremukh Iron Ore Company Limited (KIOCL), Mysore Minerals Limited (Bisgod), Nagarika Mines (Dandeli); Vidharbha – Western Coal fields Ltd, Manganese Ore India Ltd (MOIL), Central Cable Coal Colliery Ltd, Gujarat Ambuja, Larsen & Toubro ( L & T ), Associate Cement company (ACC)

New Projects and expansions

Chattisgarh – Sterlite, De beers (South Africa) Diamond Company, S Kumars Power project; Rajasthan – Rio-tinto, Birla, Binani, L&T; Gujarat – Grasim, Jindal; Vidharbha – proposed minerals are Uranium, Gold, Diamonds; Orissa: Ashton Mining India Pvt Ltd; (Australia), Monet International Ltd (Poland), Aus Rutile Pvt Ltd (Australia), Utkal Alumina, (Norway/Canada /India), De Beers India Surveys Pvt Ltd (South Africa), De Beers India Private Limited, Gold Fields Guernsey, Anglo Vall mining India Pvt Ltd, Meta Strips Ltd (Spain), Proposed Expansion: OMC, Orissa Mining Corporation, MCL, Mahanadi Coalfields Limited, NALCO, National Aluminum Company Ltd, SAIL, Steel Authority of India Ltd

Abandoned Mines and closed companies

Orissa: Mayurbhanj – Gorumahisiani and Badam Pahal (Iron); Keonjhar – Joda/Badbil; Sundergarh – Koida, Purnapani (Iron, Manganese, Bauxite); Jajapur – Sukhinda, Kaliapani (Chromite); Dhenkanal – Kankadehada (Chromite); Chattisgarh: CCI, Mandar, Sarguja Coal mines, Tagada, Indore, Shahdol coal mines

Different issues in Environmental/Legal/Social/Political health/Safety/Labour

Social: Displacement leads to loss of livelihoods, atrocities, increase in crime, loss of traditional culture, increase in liquor consumption, compensation yet to be received in some places, encroachment of land, lack of proper overburden management, landowners becoming labourers, leases given on D-patta land thus further marginalising the poor farmers

Environment: Radiation due to uranium mining, air pollution, water pollution, sound pollution, degradation of forest and agricultural lands due to overburden, loss of agriculture produce, soil pollution, increase in temperature in mining areas, tailing wastes, decrease in the level of ground water table, loss of bio diversity and ocean and wildlife resources, salinity is increasing, sea levels are going up, while fresh water is becoming scarce and desertification is on the rise, Risk of natural calamities increasing especially earthquakes, Irrigation Potential is adversely affected as the reservoirs are silted, rapid erosion due to sand mining

Health: disabilities, abortion due to radiation, TB, cancer, lack of availability of medical aid, lower life expectancy, stomach related disorders, Silicosis, Skin diseases

Legal issue: Violation of Chottanagpur Tenancy Act, Santhal Paragana Tenancy Act, PESA 1996 (Panchayatraj Extension to Scheduled Area Act 1996) and implementation of Samatha judgement, Right to life (Section 21), lack of proper implementation of land reforms, mining in the Western Ghats has resulted in serious violation of the FCA, EPA, WLPA, the Irrigation Act, the Explosives Act, the prospecting license conditions, Dam Safety Norms (tailings dam), lack of proper implementation of the various legislations related to land acquisition

Labour issue: no permanent jobs, due to mechanisation unemployment has increased, cutting jobs by VRS and ESS Scheme, cutting out women employment, increase in the contract labours, minimum Wages/ Contract Labour System (No benefits/ no facilities as per law), in unorganised sector proper working hours are not maintained, workers do not get sick leave, insurance facility in addition to not being paid on time, child labour, migration of labour

Mine Security: Lack of security equipment, violation of mine and safety regulations

Women mineworkers: In Orissa 50% women mineworkers, they are physically assaulted/ sexually exploited by the contractors/outsiders

Struggles groups working

Jharkhand: Jharkhand Organisation Against Radiation (JOAR), Majhi Paragan Mahal, Jharkhand Organisation of Human Rights (JOHAR), BIRSA, Manki Munda Manch, Omon Mahila Sangh, Visthapit Mukti Vahini, Visthapan Roko Andolan, CITU, AITUC, INTUC, BMS, HMS, NCEOA, AICCTU, IPANA, Koylanchal Visthapit Sangharsh Morcha, BCKL

Rayagada, Orissa: PSSP (Kochipodar), Maa Mati Surakhya Samiti, Anchalika Surakhya Samiti, Baplimali Surakhya Samiti, Gaon Mati Surakhya Samiti, Sashu Bohumali Surakhya Samiti, Katapalarama Yuvak Sangha, Kodingamali Yuvak Sangha (Kalahandi), Basundhara Adivasi Unayan Sangha, Sangram Network, Deomali Banabasi Prakrutika Surakhya, Orissa Adivasi Manch, Loko Unnayan Sanghatan,

Support groups: OMAPAN, Anukuran, FARR, Agragamee

Keonjhar, Orissa: Anchalika Yuva Sanghtan, Gandhmardhan Vikas Sanghtan, Banabasi Chetana Mandal, Bhuyia Pita, Gana Chetana, Parisha, Pali Bikash Sanghatan, Mahapat Yuva Sanghatan, Baitarni Pata Samaj, Ohabaleshwar Puja Commitee, Niyamgiri Surakhya Samiti, GASFA, Jharsuguda, Lomukti Sanghtan, Jharsuguda

Chattisgarh: Chattisgarh Samata Manch, Chattisgarh Mukti Morcha, Ekta Parishad, Chattissgarh kisan Sanghatan, Narmada Bachao Andolan, Adivasi Mukti Sanghatan, Bharatiya jan Andolan, Individual Support Group.

Maharashtra: Idharganj Bachao Kruthi Samithi, Zolambe (Talakat Dashkroshi), National Foundation for Environment and Ecology, Maharashtra Village Development, Prakruthi, Human and Wildlife Conservation Society, Vrikshamitra, Kalpavriksh, Bombay Environment Action Group

Goa: Brother Neri, Prabudesai, (Sanguem) Rajendra Kerker (Satari) Vivekananda Sangh, Mahadayi Bachao Andolan, Goa foundation

Karnataka: Nellibeedu Samrakhshana Samiti, Mahila Jagrithi, Tunga Bhadra Ulisi Horata Okkoota, Tunga Moola Ulisi Horata Okkootta, Nature Conservation Guild, Nagarika Seva Trust, Kudremukh Wildlife foundation, Wildlife Aware Nature Club, Ananth Hegde, Ashishar

SESA (Network in Karnataka, Maharashtra, Goa campaigning for the declaring Sahyadris as Ecologically Sensitive)

Andhra Pradesh: Ten CBOs part of CRYNet including Adivasi Mitra and TERDS in the North Coastal Andhra Pradesh. Local VSS, fisherfolk, local mahila samakhyas, rythu sangam.

Tamilnadu: local peasants (NLC), local fisherfolk church (Tuticorin sand quarry)

Rajasthan: Mine Labour Protection Campaign (Building mine workers organisation, giving legal training), Rajasthan Khet Majdoor Sangh (Fighting against encroachment of land and compensation), Gramin Krushi Yevam Khan Majdoor Sangh (Fighting for the compensation for degradation of water and loss of land), Udaipur Region Mines Labour Union (Organisation Building), District Rural Development Organisation, Nagaur (Agriculture, Health, Organisation Building, Implementation of Law), Pragatisheel Development Organisation, Contract Labours Cooperative Organisation, Balmer and Jai Ambe Mine labour Cooperative Federation, Sakroda Udaipur

Gujarat: Saurashtra Shramik Parishad (land related issues), Samudra Shramik Suraksha Sangh (Nager bachao andolan), Saurashtra Pariyavaran Samrakshan Parishad (Gir Bachao Andolan), Gujarat Jan Jagran Sangh (Kutch Bachao Andolan), Gujarat Prakruti Samrakshan Samiti (Networking of 40 organisations at the state level), LSM (State level advocacy), Gujarat Khan Khanij Prakriya Udyog (people’s awareness campaigns), Ghatwad Kheduth Samaj Sangharsha Samiti (working against land alienation), Forum 21 (a national level body working on right to livelihood), Adivasi Samata Parishad (organisational building, Natural resource protection)


Posted on November 4, 2011, in Uncategorized. Bookmark the permalink. Leave a comment.

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